Критический обзор No.8

hello, everybody~Today i would like to share an article about the Silk Route in the internationalization process.

Article: Silk route in the light of circuit tourism: An avenue of tourism internationalization

Author: Parikshat Singh Manhasa, Parvinder Koura, Akshi Bhagataa

Abstract

Being endowed with the international vision, Silk Route needs elaboration and discussion in light of tourism so as to be revived in the travel and trade market. All the secondary data from varied sources is analyzed to provide a conceptual framework of tourism opportunity for the nations along Silk Route as a tourism circuit. It also intends to identify the challenges and constraints to tourism development process and suggests various strategies to overcome these constraints. Promoting circuit tourism may help the authorities to maintain and develop the induced destinations of Silk Route in a coordinated manner for complementing the term “Tourism internationalization”.

this article is quite interesting and useful. Author wants to show us the identity of Silk Road as a tourism circuit may enforce globalized transition as it connects not only the destinations but nations with different consents as well, hence the need for internationalization is critical in order to win in this dynamic and highly competitive market of tourism destinations.

The core objective of the paper is to provide a framework of tourism opportunity for the nations along Silk Route as a tourism circuit at international level. Moreover this research paper also aims to:
•    Tourism internationalization theory in specificity of Circuit tourism along Silk Route.
•    To identify the challenges and constraints to tourism development process.
•    To suggest the various strategies in order to overcome these constraints.

The views in the text are goods. but the article is too focused on the development of the tourism industry in India and China under the conditions of the internationalization of the Silk Road. And another drawback is in the article author used many forecast data, for example,

By 2025, India is set to become the world‘s fifth largest consumer market, up from the 12th largest in 2007 (McKinsey Global Institute, 2007).

Even According to UNWTO, China will become a leading destination by 2020 with highest number of tourist arrivals.

In the article author mention the challenges and constraints to tourism development process. And these challenges and constraints in my opinion have practical significance.

  • The biggest challenge especially for developing countries like India as a late comer is how to create new competitive aura in the market.
  • Generally speaking, the operators direct their attention only towards the local tourist’s activities, and, because of the close competition and of the limited resources they consider internationalization as being a slow and expensive process.
  • Being tagged in a circuit, Silk Route countries are in supposed to face difficulties in stipulations of political issues, probably the greatest will be effects, concern and dispute from heightened security which are expected to continue as international tourism borders may cause a difficulties in applying homogeneous management strategies
  • In addition to this economic disparities are also one of the major concerns that constrain certain stakeholders’ willingness or ability to participate in the process
  • Other big issues are visa facilitations and the internal conflicts, especially within weak nations, could trigger large-scale clashes among states attempting to assert their interests
  • Poor infrastructure is another barrier to challenge that needs to be faced in the tourism circuit promotion along Silk Route.

Thanks for your reading, and welcome comments!

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814042116

Критический обзор No.7

Article: The definition of tourism and the origin of
ancient tourism in China

Author: Zheng Yan (College of Economy & Management,Hunan Normal
University,Changsha,410081)

Hello, everyone, today I want to share with you is an article on the origin of Chinese tourism, because the article is written in Chinese, so I will write critical review in English.

According to ancient Chinese mythology, primitive people had already begun their earliest tourism activities. Terms like “Sightseeing” and “tour” appeared very early in ancient Chinese characters .Moreover, the connotation of these words are generally in accordance with the definition of the word “ tour” given by the international tourism organization in 1991. Early in the Shan and Zhou Dynasties, essential tourism facilities, such as transportation and accommodation, were rather completed in China, Therefore, people then traveled very frequently for various purposes. Some of them had been to so faraway places as today’s Gansu, XinJiang and Inner Mongolia. They had also widely traveled by sea. They started the first chapter in Chinese Tourism history.

The author talks about the definition of tourism, about the origins of Chinese tourism and about the early travel activities in China. In the definition of the problem, the author mentions that ancient Chinese tourism has a long history. Tourism has two expressions in Chinese, one is旅行 (Lv Xing) and the other is 旅游 (Lv You).  It is often difficult to distinguish clearly between them. Strictly speaking, 旅行 and旅游are different. The focus of旅行 (Lv Xing) is in the word “Xing”. People are going to carry out political, religious, academic and business activities through “practice”. Sightseeing are not its main purpose. The key point of旅游 (Lv You) is “travel”. Its ultimate purpose. But on the other hand, travel and tourism and has a close relationship, even if the travel is to achieve political, religious, business and other purposes, will inevitably travel in trekking along some tour.

Land travel in China are much earlier than navigational trips. Archaeological discoveries, indicating that as early as the Neolithic period of the original Yangshao(культура Яншао- устоявшееся в прошлом название группы неолитических археологических культур, существовавших на территории Китая в V—II тыс. до н. э., наряду с Мацзяяо и Цюйцзялин) tribes have repeated migratory travel activities. In the Xia Dynasty in the capital city of Yang Zhai held a meeting, Archaeological evidence of the ability to travel tourism reception has reached a certain level.

The article is very interesting, in the field of Chinese tourism research, the history of China’s tourism is relatively lack of information, this article is very helpful.

URL: http://wxphp.com/wxd_58qc153v3u3fmdy9vdc0_1.html

Критический обзор No.6

название статьи: ИСТОРИЯ И СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ РАЗВИТИЯ ТУРИЗМА В КИТАЕ

автор: Ю.А. Брызгалова

Эта статья рассказывала, что основные направления деятельности Государственного Управления по делам туризма КНР (ГУТ КНР) включают разработку законодательной базы для налаживания управленческой деятельности в области туризма, привлечение туристов из-за рубежа и создание благоприятных условий для пребывания туристов в Китае. В задачи ГУТ КНР также входит укрепление двусторонних взаимовыгодных связей с зарубежными странами. Помимо ГУТ КНР, в каждой провинции создан орган управления туризмом. Благодаря поддержке со стороны государства, туристская индустрия Китая развивается быстро и интенсивно.

В статье автор показал нам 2 рисунка: Доходы от международного туризма по провинциям Китая и Прибытия международных туристов по провинциям. Как видно по гистограмме(рис.1), провинциями с самыми большими доходами от международного туризма являются провинция Гуандун, провинция Цзянсу, город центрального подчинения Шанхай и город центрального подчинения Пекин. Автор объяснил причины, почему эти города получили такие большие доходы. Представлена гистограмма(рис.2), отражающая количество иностранных прибытий в разные провинции Китая.

Автор так оценил туризм в китае: Китай уже стал мощно развивающейся силой в мировом туризме. На сегодняшний день Азия играет важнейшую роль в продвижении глобальной туристической отрасли, а КНР занимает передовые позиции в развитии азиатского туризма. В настоящее время стремительно растущему китайскому рынку придает большое значение множество стран мира, которые видят огромный потенциал в нем. Как подчеркнул заместитель начальника Государственного управления по делам туризма КНР У. Вэньсюэ «китайский туризм связан с мировым туризмом, а мировой туристической индустрии не обойтись без китайского рынка».

Статья полезная, через гистограмму легко понимать общее состояние развития туризма в Китае. Но название статьи было ИСТОРИЯ И СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ РАЗВИТИЯ ТУРИЗМА В КИТАЕ, а история развития туризма в статья почти не  упомянута. Это недостаток.

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23224061 (Страницы: 27-34

 

 

Критический обзор No.5

название статьи: ОСОБЕННОСТИ ИНДУСТРИИ ТУРИЗМА В КИТАЕ

автор: ГОРОХОВ С.А.

В работе представлена характеристика развития индустрии туризма в Китае как важнейшей туристской дестинации Азии. Представлена особенность структуры въездных потоков в страну и востребованные разнообразные виды туризма.

В этой статье автор не только показал нам как быстро развивается трристская индусирия, но и указал какие преимущества и недостатки сушествуют в туризме Китае.

Всего за неполные сорок лет Китай сумел превратиться из отсталой аграрно-индустриальной страны во вторую экономику мира; а к 2025 г., по некоторым прогнозам, он станет лидером по объёму ВВП.

Конечно это просто прогноз автора, но он хотел выражать скорость развития туризма Китая. С 1978 года, туризм в Китае постепенно превратился в самостоятельную экономическую промышленности. Сравнение с другими странами, безусловно история туризма в Китае очень короткая. Но быстрый рост количества въездных и выездных туристов привел к быстрому росту соответствующих доходов.

По индексу конкурентоспособности в области туризма и путешествий Китай занимал 47 место (из 132 стран) в 2010 г., опережая, например, Россию, Индию, Польшу, Турцию, причем его позиции значительно улучшились по сравнению с 2009 г., когда Китай был лишь на 62 месте. Индекс отражает хорошую обеспеченность природными (7 место в мире) и культурно-историческими (15 место) рекреационными ресурсами. По ценовой конкурентоспособности КНР тоже занимает высокую позицию – 20 место в мире. Гораздо хуже положение Китая в области здоровья и гигиены (91 место), политики в области устойчивого развития (105 место), обеспеченности туристской инфраструктурой (80 место).

Автор использовал многие индексы показать что Китай обладает огромным рекреационным потенциалом. Эти индексы тоже отражают недостатки в развитии туризма Китая, как положение Китая в области здоровья и гигиены, политики в области устойчивого развития и обеспеченности туристской инфраструктурой.

короче, думаю что статья интересная и полезная , но недостаток заключается в том, что cодержание является не чётком.

URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=22310107

Критический обзор No.4

Статья: ДИНАМИКА РЫНКА ТУРИЗМА КНР

Автор: Чжу Цзин, М. B. Ивашкин.

Аннотация: В Китае экскурсионный туризм является новой формой. Данный вид туризма, заключается в улучшении экскурсионных туров и развитии традиционной формы туризма. Ключевые слова: туризм, формы туризм, развитие туризма.

По данным Всемирной туристской организации (ВТО) и Международного валютного фонда, туризм с 1998 года вышел на первое место в мировом экспорте товаров и услуг. По прогнозам ВТО, в ближайшие десятилетия темпы роста туризма сохранятся.

В статье авторы отметили, что 

В Китае своеобразный туризм является новой формой туризма, это не только улучшение на основе экскурсионных туров и отдыхающих туризм, но и развитие и углубление традиционной формы туризма. Так он является более высокой формой продуктов туристических деятельности.

Действительно, индустрия туризма Китая началась поздже по сравнению с другими западными странами. Но она быстро развивается. С начала 1990-х годов до начала 21-го века, у нас однопрофильный въездный туристический рынок преобразован в комплексной туристический рынок, в котором заключаются внутренний рынок туризма, выездный туристический рынок и въездный туристический рынок. Согласно данным Всемирного совета путешествий и туризма в 2014, индустрия туризма Китая прямо и косвенно создала 9,4% совокупного ВВП.

В 2009 году индустрия туризма Китая быстро развила и тенденция роста сохранилась в целом. Среди них, на внутреннем рынке туризма продолжает быстро, въездный туристический рынок постепенно восстанавливается, выездный туристический рынок устойчинно развивается. В то же время, масштаб капиталовложений туризма значительно увеличивается.

Я думаю, что эта точка зрения автора не совсем верна, так как, согласно статистическому отчету Национальной туристической администрации, В 2009 году общий въездный туристический рынок находился в депрессивном состоянии, даже снижение на 2,7% и 2,9% по сравнению с предыдущим годом.

Не существует единого критерия,который бы позволил объективно  судить о развитии туристского бизнеса. Туристы не могут предусмотрение будущий эффект услуга, не могут получить одинаковые информации от других. Степень удовлетворения туристов зависит от субьективного ощущения, критерий выбор туристов зависит от чего? Зависит от марки. С точки зрения экономики , туристы выбирают турагенство зависит от большого интереса. Туристы делают выбор в условий своих времени и экономики. Опыт самых туристов и опыт других не достоверный, только обеспеченная марка , эффективное предприятие могут удовлетворить туристов.

Исследование показывает, что марка является одним из наиболее важных факторов, чтобы привлечь туристов. Гонконг каждые несколько лет проводит новую туристическую тематику, которая успешно привлекает большое количество туристов. Например, В 1998-2001 гг лозунгом у Гонконга являлся “City of Life (Город жизни )”, В 2001-2003 гг “City of Life, Hong Kong is it (Город жизни, это Гонконг)”, С 2003 года по настоящее время “Hong Kong. Live it, Love it”.

И в конце статьи авторы показали нам следующие новые тенденции туризма:

1.Промышленный и сельскохозяйственный туризмы будут процветать.
2.Отдыхающий туризм станут новой формой туризма.
3. Западная туризм будет основным моментом развития индустрии туризма Китая.

согласна с автором о этих новых тенденциях, в  2015 Администрация Китайской национальной туризма уже задавала новую идею о развитии индустрии туризма Китая, крторая называется “туризм +”. Короче говоря, “туризм +” означает, что нужно реализовать потенциал туризма, туризм можно диверсифицировать за счет развития новых форм туризма как туризм + образование, туризм + спорт, туризм + отдых, туризм + новая пенсия, туризм +медицина, туризм + покупка и так далее.

С полным текстом статьи можно ознакомиться по ссылку: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21679641

 

No.3 Critical review of article “Web-based GIS in tourism information search: Perceptions, tasks, and trip attributes”

Article: Web-based GIS in tourism information search: Perceptions, tasks, and trip attributes

Journal: Tourism Management

Author: Grace Chang, Lowell Caneday

Abstract:People’s strategies and choices to utilize tourism information have shifted dramatically over the years following ubiquitous access to the Internet. Despite the fact that many tourism information searches on the Internet involve geo-spatial information through WebGIS, little is known about tourists’ behavioral patterns with this media. The purpose of this study was to examine tourists’ trip situations, tasks, and perceptions toward WebGIS. An electronic survey method and multiple regression technique were used to collect and analyze data. Findings indicate that ‘usefulness’ and ‘playfulness’ were the key factors that determined the level of usage and interaction. Users showed distinct behavioral tendencies under different trip situations and task performances when searching tourism information using WebGIS.

Undoubtedly,the means by which consumers search for tourism information has shifted dramatically over the years. In our daily life, web-based geographic information systems (WebGIS), e.g. Google Maps, Yahoo Maps, and GlobeXplore, often be used in providing travel information . Current developments in Web-GIS have profoundly affected tourism industry.  According to the statistics,geographical information accounted for nearly half of travel information search queries.

Consequently this study aims to identify tourists’ perceptions and examine factors instrumental to tourists’ choice and their interaction in different travel situations and tasks withWebGIS. The investigation focuses on variables that impact the acceptance of WebGIS and how trip attributes and searching tasks affect the utilization of tourism WebGIS.

This study incorporates two important models, TAM and TTF. If you already read my last review about Consumer perception of knowledge-sharing in travel-related Online Social Networks, you will not be strange to model TAM(Technology Acceptance Model). It is a model that explains the relationship between attitude, intention, and behavior based on a recognized theoretical foundation and possessing explanatory power. Another model Task Technology Fit Model (TTF) indicate the importance of the fit between the user’s demands and what the technology can offer. The most efficient and effective performances occur when the competencies of the technology match the demands made by users. I couldn’t agree more with the author use both of these two models in the research at the same time. Because in my opinion TTF model is proposed to complement the TAM model defects.

In the relationship between perceptions and utilization behaviors, the factors of ‘usefulness’ and ‘playfulness’ play major roles in determining the usages and interactions with WebGIS respectively. However, the findings indicate that the construct ‘ease of use’ is not an influential factor in tourism WebGIS, thereby contradicting previous studies. These results imply that the sense of ‘usefulness’ may be the fundamental motivation for users to access tourism WebGIS while the sense of ‘playfulness’ or ‘enjoyment’ may be the mechanism to engage users for interactions.

Its obviously PEOU in this situation is not so important. Its not difficult to understand, most of us will use WebGIS when we really need to get information from it. And practical information, such as transportation, accommodation, and activity environment become the primary information needs, and the demand for detailed, accurate, and location-specific information becomes more urgent. Although traditional methods, such as brochures, publications, radio announcements, television advertising, and word of mouth have commonly been implemented in the field, practitioners and researchers could not overlook the restrictions of those communication techniques and the advantages of WebGIS in promoting tourism. Web-based GIS plays an important role  in tourism information search.

Thanks for reading and if you have any opinions about my critical review, welcome comments!

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517711000094

No.2 Critical review of article “Consumer perception of knowledge-sharing in travel-related Online Social Networks”

Consumer perception of knowledge-sharing in travel-related Online Social Networks

Journal: Tourism Management

Author: Anil Bilgihan, Albert Barreda, Fevzi Okumus, Khaldoon Nusair

Before the article, maybe we can ask ourselves two questions: 1. why we begin to use Online Social Networks (OSNs) to make our travel plans, and 2. In what situation we will share knowledge when using travel-related OSN websites.  OSNs are gaining attention as knowledge sharing platforms for the travel and tourism industry as more and more travelers are using this method to exchange information. They have been recognized as innovative knowledge sharing networks (e.g. product reviews, trends, restaurant and hotel reviews, and travel blogs) by enabling users to connect, share, and interact with others.

According to the article,the biggest challenge for tourism firms is to convince users to share knowledge with other members in OSNs. Thus, success of OSN profiles of tourism companies and organizations depends on whether users are willing to share their experiences and knowledge with other users. The willingness of travelers to participate in knowledge sharing is of importance to the travel and tourism industry. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the factors that motivate users to share travel related information in OSNs using a multidisciplinary approach to the topic that combines an understanding to social, marketing and information systems literature. Maybe no one doesn’t know about knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing defined as “the combination of one or both parties seeking knowledge in response to the request, such that one or both parties are affected by the experience.”. We are familiar with blogs, blogs are seen as one of the principal methods of knowledge sharing. Lately, OSNs have become important tools for travelers to acquire knowledge. In the article, author proposed 9 hypotheses:

  • Perceived ease of use has a significant positive influence on knowledge sharing intravel-related OSN websites.
  • Perceived ease of use has a significant positive influence on utilitarian beliefs in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Perceived ease of use has a significant positive influence on subjective norms in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Perceived ease of use has a significant positive influence on belief in integrity in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Subjective norms have a significant positive influence on switching costs in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Subjective norms have a significant positive influence on belief in integrity in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Utilitarian beliefs have a significant positive influence on belief in integrity in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Belief in integrity has a significant positive influence on intentions to share knowledge in travel-related OSN websites.
  • Switching costs have a significant positive influence on intentions to share knowledge in travel-related OSN websites.

And then they designed an online questionnaire to assess OSN user perceptions of the research constructs using multiple-item scales. The model assessment shows that eight of the nine proposed hypotheses were supported. switching cost is not positively related to intention to share knowledge, This may imply that OSN users now use multiple OSN platforms and follow multiple brands/destinations at the same time and therefore do not perceive high switching costs. Their model suggests that PEOU is still a prominent construct in information systems research that positively influences utilitarian beliefs, subjective norms, belief in integrity and intention to share knowledge.

Most of hypotheses I agree with, but about H2, author mentioned that when users perceive low or no effort using a website, they believe that the website reflects the utilitarian aspects of an adequate online experience, I think this view is one-sided, because utilitarian for me is not just in the aspect of using website easily.

In addition the study participants were OSN users in the U.S. who had at least one year of online travel shopping experience, this has some limitations for the study. Because the development of OSNs in different countries are different, to a certain extent, this will affect the accuracy of the results. Of course, we can say that the results of this study meet most of the situation, but due to the scope of the survey and the limitations of the survey population, it is difficult to say that the conclusions of this study is entirely correct.

But in another way, more and more people are using OSNs to plan their vacations and they trust the recommendations of their virtual network. Travelers are looking for suggestions, recommendations and insight from OSNs. Destinations who manage to create a virtual environment that builds a virtual community by engaging travelers to share their knowledge and insights will be more successful. Therefore, OSN marketing is instrumental for destinations. OSN marketing is different from traditional marketing where the company directly sends marketing messages to their customers. Rather, in OSNs it is usually the user that communicates the messages to other users. Therefore, it is important to understand that information sharing behaviors of users are important and powerful assets to a business. The study of this article does help us to better understand information sharing behaviors online.

Thanks for reading and if you have any opinions about my critical review, welcome message.

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517715001557

 

Critical review of article “Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of e-Tourism research”

Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of e-Tourism research

Journal: Tourism Management

Publishing house: Progress in Tourism Management

Author: Dimitrios Buhalis, Rob Law

          According to the abstract, this paper reviews the published articles on E-Tourism in the past 20 years. Using a wide variety of sources, mainly in the tourism literature, this paper comprehensively reviews and analyses prior studies in the context of Internet applications to tourism. The paper also projects future developments in e Tourism and demonstrates critical changes that will influence the tourism industry structure. A major contribution of this paper is its overview of the research and development efforts that have been endeavored in the field, and the challenges that tourism researchers are, and will be, facing. As authors say, technological progress and tourism have going hand in hand for years, Communication Technologies(ICTs) developing in tourism industry rapidly. Of course we are so familiar with these systems, such as Computer Reservation Systems (CRSs) and Global Distribution Systems (GDSs). Increasingly, ICTs enable travelers to access reliable and accurate information as well as to undertake reservations in a fraction of time, cost and inconvenience required by conventional methods. In the article author talked about ICT: The development of ICTs and particularly the Internet empowered the ‘‘new’’ tourist who is becoming knowledgeable and is seeking exceptional value for money and time. They are less interested in following the crowds in packaged tours and much more keen to pursue their own preferences and schedules. Increasingly, package tours are losing market share in favor of independently organized tourism facilitated by dynamic packaging.” I totally agree with this opinion, because nowadays, internet is developing rapidly, it is so easy for us to find tourism information on it, we even don’t need to visit travel agency, on the internet we can directly find what we need, these gave us more choices, the conventional methods will take more time and most of them r package tour. Customers search for travel-related information, make online air-ticket bookings, online room reservations, and other online purchases themselves instead of relying on travel agencies to undertake this process for them. In the paper authors mention that “. Pricing is also a major issue in E-Tourism as many organizations use ICTs to communicate directly to consumers on web-only fares and rates, passing on discounts that are generated from saved commissions and distribution charges made in a short value chain.”. This situation is not difficult to understand, because the Internet enabled consumers to engage directly with suppliers and challenging the role of intermediaries. So the price is less then conventional method, and it also allowed consumers to interact dynamically with suppliers and destinations and often make requests that will enable them to customize their products. But as author say: “since payment is the most important item in ecommerce, consumers are always concerned on payment security. Such concerns are a possible outcome of computer crimes, which are one of the primary factors that prevent consumers from providing credit card information.” it is the truth that most of people do not like to disclose their personal information, because the lack of security on the network. Additionally, privacy issues are found to be of major concern to many consumers. This leads to the situation that many travelers use the Internet to search for information but still purchase offline. So like article mention: “Website owners should, therefore, pay more attention on making customers feel comfortable and secure to complete their reservations and to increase trust in the online environment.” In the article even talked about virtual communities. The most cited definition of a virtual community was firstly given by Rheingold (1993) as ‘‘a virtual community is a group of people who may or may not meet one another face-to-face, and who exchange words and ideas through the mediation of computer bulletin boards and networks’’. Now in china virtual community plays a really important role in searching tourism information on internet. Many tourists can share their experience and recommendations. Consumers like to get information from them more then from advertisements or travel agency. These information of virtual community even directly affect consumer to make a decision.

                Actually in this article still many interesting and helpful information, but due to limited time, I can’t show them all. But in brief, information technology is really play an important role in tourism industry in these years and according to the situation, its influences will still keep for long term. Thanks for reading and if you have any opinions about my critical review, welcome message.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517708000162

HELLO

Good day for you everyone) I will publish my educational researches in this blog, my supervisor – Шевцова Светлана павловна. In general my subject will be about information technology in tourism sectors. I will try to spot some lights on the meaning and historical review of the information technology in the tourism, and study the latest innovations and development in this field, revealing the strength and weakness in this sphere.